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The science that uses tree rings to study changes in river flow, surface runoff, and lake levels.Example: dating when trees were inundated by water to determine the sequence of lake level changes over time.The science that uses tree rings to date and study past and present changes in glaciers.Example: dating the inside rings of trees on moraines to establish the approximate date of a glacial advance.The science that uses tree rings to date and study the past dynamics of insect populations.Example: dating the growth suppressions left in tree rings from western spruce budworm outbreaks in the past.These instruments are quite expensive, normally ranging from 0 to 0.NOTE TO READERS You may notice that the principles below represent a major change in the way we approach dendrochronology.

I'm sure, over time, we may find that one or more principles below are not really needed or that new principles need to be introduced. This principle was most applied to reconstructions of past climate, assuming that the climate response seen in trees during modern times was the same as the climate response in trees during previous times.For example, an index of 0.75 (or 75) for a given year indicates growth below normal (indicated by 1.00, or 100).The process that removes undesirable long-term variations from a time series of measured tree-ring properties by dividing the actual measurements by those predicted from a statistically derived equation that relates tree growth over time to tree age.The science that uses tree rings to date and study past and present changes in wildfires.Example: dating the fire scars left in tree rings to determine how often fires occurred in the past.

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Absolute dating to determine the actual age of an object or stratigraphic layer, and relative dating to tie associated artifacts and layers into the sequence provided by the absolute dates.