Otzi the iceman radiocarbon dating
According to a resolution by the South Tyrol Provincial Government, the official name for the mummy is "Der Mann aus dem Eis" - "L'Uomo venuto dal ghiaccio" (The man who came from ice). Soon after the mummy was recovered, a harsh controversy arose on which soil - Italian or Austrian - it was found. 2, 1991 established that the mummy lay 303.67 feet from the border in South Tyrol, in Italy. The Iceman had a remarkable diastema, or natural gap, between his two upper incisors. Even though he suffered from cavities, worn teeth and periodontal diseases, he still had all his teeth when he died at around 45. Researchers are still investigating the sampled material to determine the exact nature on the Iceman's last meal. Three gallbladder stones were recently found which, in combination with the previously identified atherosclerosis, show that Ötzi's diet may have been richer in animal products than previously thought. The Iceman's stomach also contained 30 different types of pollen, which ended up there with the food he ate, the water he drank and the air he breathed.
The pollen showed that he died in the spring or early summer. Analysis of the isotopic composition of Ötzi's tooth enamel and bones suggest that the man was born and lived in what is now South Tyrol.
Archaeological experiments showed that the axe could fell a yew tree in 35 minutes without sharpening. Ötzi's body is covered with over 50 tattoos made with fine incisions into which charcoal was rubbed.
In the shape of lines and crosses, they were probably used as pain-relieving treatments. Recent research by Albert Zink at the EURAC Institute for Mummies and the Iceman in Bolzano, found signs of enthesopathy (an inflammatory disease of bone attachments) in the knees, which indicate that the Neolithic man spent many hours wandering in the mountains. Claims of a Tutankhamen-style curse refer to seven strange deaths which occurred just a couple of years after German hiker Helmut Simon and his wife Erika discovered the frozen mummy.
According to the researchers, the original radiocarbon dates clearly identify Oetzi as "the oldest tattooed human remains discovered to date, predating the Chinchorro mummy Mo-1 T28 C22 by at least 500 years." The research team, which included Benoît Robitaille, Lars Krutak, at the National Museum of Natural History, the Smithsonian Institution, and Sébastien Galliot, at the Centre de Recherche et de Documentation sur l'Océanie at Aix-Marseille Université, double checked their data by cataloging of all known tattooed human mummies.
Markings were noticed on Oetzi ever since his discovery in 1991 in a melting glacier in the Oetztal Alps (hence the name).
This mistake was repeated in later studies, and eventually the mummy was determined to be about 4,000 years older than it actually was.
Since the glacier made it difficult to establish the exact location of the watershed, a controversy arose on which soil -- Italian or Austrian -- it was found. 2, 1991 established that the mummy lay 303.67 feet from the border in South Tyrol, in Italy. Initially, the mummy was dated to be at least 4,000 years old (later, radio carbon dating established that the man lived around 5,000 years ago, between 33 B. Such an old, well preserved, fully clothed, mummified body had never before been seen. 25, 1992, a second archaeological survey was carried out at the glacier.
Based on three-dimensional images of the mummy's skeleton as well as the latest forensic technology, a new model of the living Oetzi has been created by Dutch experts Alfons and Adrie Kennis.
An incredible chain of coincidences allowed the Iceman to remain intact: he was covered by snow shortly after his death and later by ice; the deep gully where the Iceman lay prevented the body from being ground up by the base of the glacier; the body was exposed to damaging sunlight and wind only for a short time in 1991 between the time the mummy thawed and the accidental discovery. It was an Austrian reporter, Karl Wendl, who first named the mummy "Ötzi," referring to the Ötzal Alps where it was found. The man's natural mummification and dehydration in the Alpine glacier produced a "collapse of the genitalia," which left the Iceman with an almost invisible member. The Iceman's last meal probably consisted of a porridge of einkorn, meat and vegetables.
The mummy boasts tattoos grouped across 19 body parts.
Earlier this year, Marco Samadelli and colleagues from the South Tyrol Museum of Archaeology, Italy, spotted a new tattoo on the mummified body, bringing the total count of the Iceman's skin markings up to 61.
Recent non-invasive multispectral photographic imaging techniques at the South Tyrol Museum of Archaeology, investigated the tattoos.